Center for Water
and the Environment
Cindy Hale, Ph.D., Research Associate
Position and Focus
Dr. Hale conducts research and education related to forest and ecosystems ecology, plant communities and soil dynamics with an emphasis on the impacts of invasive earthworm species. She has also volunteered to spearhead the Heritage Orchard restoration efforts on the UMD Field Experimental Station and to work with a diverse interdisciplinary team of faculty, staff and students to create research and educational opportunities for students and the community with the newly formed Sustainable Agriculture Program at UMD. Her family also operates a small, organic, integrated tree fruit, poultry and hog farm.
Ph.D. Forest ecology, University of Minnesota, College of Natural Resources, Department of Forest Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota, 2003
M.S. Environmental Sciences, University of Minnesota Duluth, 1997
B.S. Ecology-Individually Designed Program, University of Minnesota, 1988
GGS Graduate Gemologist, Diamonds, Colored Stones, and Gem Identification. The Gemological Institute of America, Santa Monica, CA. 1982
Scott R, Hueffmeier RM, Hale CM, Host GE, Sjerven G, Frelich LE. 2013. Earthworm invasions in northern hardwood forests: a rapid assessment method. Natural Areas Journal 33(1):21-30.
Larson ER, Kipfmueller KF, Hale CM, Frelich LE, Reich PB. 2010. Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern hardwood forests. Biological Invasions 12:1053-1066.
Callaham MA, Gonzalez G, Hale CM, Heneghan L, Lachnicht SL, Zou X. 2007. Policy and management responses to earthworm invasions. Biological Invasions 7(6):1317-1329.
Hale CM. 2007. Earthworms of the Great Lakes. First Edition:1-36.
Hobbie SE, Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Ogdahl M, Zytkowiak R, Hale CM, Karolewski P. 2007. Species effects on litter chemistry and microenvironment regulate litter decomposition an dflorest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment with fourteen tree species. Ecology 87(9):2288-2297.
to view complete publication list.
Click here to view Dr. Hale's Great Lakes Worm Watch publications list.
Project list for Cindy Hale :
(A link will go to the project's current report, an arrow will take you to a project's home page)
Acceleration of Inorganic Nutrient Release and Mineral Organic Matter Association by Biophysical Soil Mixing along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence
Two major life sustaining processes of the terrestrial earth surface are the release of inorganic nutrients through mineral weathering and carbon cycling, which are strongly influenced by soil organisms. We propose that vertical soil mixing by earthworms will have far reaching impacts on the rates of mineral weathering and carbon cycling when viewed against the steep vertical gradients in: 1) the concentrations, compositions and dynamics of minerals and organic matter, and 2) the geochemical environment affecting mineral weathering that define soil types. Our goal is to understand how and to what degree soil perturbation by earthworms affects the rates of chemical weathering and organic matter-mineral association in soils. Although earthworms are widely perceived to have beneficial influences on soil structure and nutrient dynamics, recent research has shown them to have negative impacts on soil structure, nutrient availability and water dynamics in cold-temperate hardwood forests.