Cindy Hale

Center for Water
and the Environment
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Cindy Hale, Ph.D., Research Associate

Cindy Hale

Position and Focus

Dr. Hale conducts research and education related to forest and ecosystems ecology, plant communities and soil dynamics with an emphasis on the impacts of invasive earthworm species. She has also volunteered to spearhead the Heritage Orchard restoration efforts on the UMD Field Experimental Station and to work with a diverse interdisciplinary team of faculty, staff and students to create research and educational opportunities for students and the community with the newly formed Sustainable Agriculture Program at UMD. Her family also operates a small, organic, integrated tree fruit, poultry and hog farm.


Ph.D. Forest ecology, University of Minnesota, College of Natural Resources, Department of Forest Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota, 2003
M.S. Environmental Sciences, University of Minnesota Duluth, 1997
B.S. Ecology-Individually Designed Program, University of Minnesota, 1988
GGS Graduate Gemologist, Diamonds, Colored Stones, and Gem Identification. The Gemological Institute of America, Santa Monica, CA. 1982

Current Publications

  • 7: Loss, S R, Hueffmeier, R M, Hale, C M, Host, G E Sjerven, G & Frelich, L E. 2013. Earthworm invasions in northern hardwood forests: a rapid assessment method. Natural Areas Journal 33:21--30.
  • 7: Larson, E R, Kipfmueller, K F, Hale, C M Frelich, L E & Reich, P B. 2010. Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern hardwood forests. Biological Invasions 12:1053--1066.
  • 1: Hale, C M. 2007. Earthworms of the Great Lakes. edition. Duluth, MNKollath+Stensaas Publishing
  • 7: Hale, C M Frelich, L E & Reich, P B. 2006. Changes in cold-temperate hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to invasion by European earthworms. Ecology 87:1637--1649.
  • 7: Frelich, L E, Hale, C M, Scheu, S, Holdsworth, A R, Heneghan, L Bohlen, P J & Reich, P B. 2006. Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. Biological Invasions 7:1235--1245.
  • Click here to view complete publication list.

    Click here to view Dr. Hale's Great Lakes Worm Watch publications list.