Stories in this Issue
Peat: Environmental Cleanup
Lalich column: NRRI Structure Serves as Model
NEMBIC (Northeastern Minnesota Business Innovation Center)
Blocks: cement and taconite tailings
Knife River Block Building test
Aspen Supply Study
Peat Program Director Named: Malterer
Partridge River expansion
Greater Minnesota Column: Five Point Agenda
Johnson, Thys Award
But peat as a tool for environmental clean-up?
NRRI scientists currently are examining various methods of waste treatment using peat as a sorptive bulking agent in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. The primary research is funded by the Greater Minnesota Corporation.
The theory behind the research is relatively simple.
"Peat, in a dried state, is highly absorbent because of tiny micropores and the large surface area of its particles," said Tom Levar, NRRI scientist and manager of Institute peat projects. "When dried, it absorbs up to 15 times its weight in waste products, but will not absorb water."
These properties give peat its outstanding potential for use in environmental clean-up projects. Currently NRRI research is focusing on what type of wastes peat will absorb and what ratios of peat to waste are necessary to minimize the environmental impacts of wastes.
"We have identified problematic wastes and sources of wastes in Minnesota," Levar said. "These wastes include things such as food processing residues, fish wastes, vegetable mashes and municipal sewage and effluent."
However, much of the current NRRI research has centered on using peat as a clean-up tool for oil. Research to date, using three grades of locally-supplied crude oil, has shown that not only does peat absorb oil, but because oil floats in water, so does oil saturated peat.
But simply knowing that pea is an excellent sorptive material for oil will not help in oil-related, man-made disasters, such as the recent oil spill in Valdez, Alaska. However, NRRI researchers also are examining how to produce a product that can be manufactured and sold for these types of operations.
For example, 3M markets polypropylene sheets that are used as absorbtive materials during oil spills. Levar is examining the potential of using peat in a similar manner. Options include pillows, booms or tubes that could be stuffed with dried peat and baled or compressed peat.
Theoretically, in the case of an oil spill, these "peat pillows" could be tossed on the water body to absorb floating oil, and later would be collected, much like giant sponges, Levar said.
Levar currently is looking to federal funding sources to expand the scope of this research.
Early in April, NRRI had an opportunity to host its sister applied research institute within the Greater Minnesota Corporation, the recently established Agricultural Utilization Research Institute (AURI). AURI's new managers had come to NRRI for a planning session, and one of their initial objectives was to learn from NRRI's start-up experience.
The intensity of discussions and scope of questions that were asked of NRRI over a five or six hour period, served to underscore just how much NRRI has accomplished since its inception and the magnitude of the start-up task facing AURI.
By coincidence, the meeting with AURI occurred at a time when I was personally reflecting, with a sense of pride, on having just completed five challenging years at NRRI.
This sense of pride was not dampened in the least by discussions with AURI on a wide range of topics such as how NRRI has focused on hiring high-qualified employees, concentrated on helping industry and entrepreneurs in the near term, worked to design and set up laboratories at minimum cost while leveraging funds for equipment, planned programs and selected projects on the basis of evaluations of problems and opportunities, and sought cooperative working relationships to be better able to serve its constituents.
In retrospect, the activity level at the Institute over the past five years has been very intense, almost frantic at times, as all the issues of Institute start-up have been addressed.
While emphasis is changing as the NRRI matures, if anything, the activity level appears to be acceNRRI Now issue, for example, I discussed the prospect of establishing a research park or incubator centered on environmental chemistry and environmental processing.
In another issue, the opportunity for a major study of Lake Superior was discussed. In this issue, the Northeastern Minnesota Business Innovation Center (NEMBIC) is announced as the first of the Greater Minnesota Corporation's regional centers.
NEMBIC represents an outstanding opportunity to encourage economic development and technology transfer in Northeastern Minnesota, but will constitute a major organizational effort and operating challenge for the Center for Economic Development and other cooperating regional economic development providers.
All of these broadly based initiatives must be considered in the context of NRRI's continuing goal to assist entrepreneurs and industry with near term economic development opportunities.
Efforts also are continuing to be focused on developing and improving the Institute's base of research capabilities in support of its research mission.
For example, efforts are quietly continuing to develop a wood product prototype and testing laboratory capability for both composites and solid wood products. The Coleraine laboratory has grown to sixteen employees with emphasis on minerals research and, more recently, on environmental processing. A myriad of computers and support equipment from the National Science Foundation Geographic Information Center grant, is being setup and debugged.
In my experience, an organization can either progress or regress. Fortunately, NRRI is in an outstanding position to progress and take advantage of the diligent efforts, made by both NRRI employees and outside supporters, during the Institute's formative years. However, while the possibilities are exciting, the challenges also are going to be formidable. We must continue to provide the proper organizational framework, attract highly-qualified employees, and provide necessary resources in terms of operating budgets, office space and laboratory facilities.
Personally, I am looking forward to these challenges, as I am convinced that NRRI is gaining a reputation for demonstrated achievement that will serve the Institute well in attracting qualified staff and in justifying additional resources when they are required.
Making NRRI a pleasant place to work is top priority for Gene Betts.
Betts' job is twofold. On one hand he is the senior research shop foreman, researching and developing equipment for NRRI scientists to use in their programs. On the other hand, he is building manager, doing his best to maintain a good working environment within the NRRI building.
A native of Staples, Minn., Betts, 45, attended Staples Area Vocational Technical Institute in tool and die work. He came to the Institute after working as a tool and die maker and as millwright in the construction industry. It was while working as a project engineer for a casting firm in Two Harbors that he first saw an advertisement for his position in an area newspaper.
"It's like the ad was written for me," he said. "I wanted to be a part of creating jobs in Minnesota."
As building manager, Betts coordinates with UMD Plant Services on maintenance and repairs of the building. He also acts as owners' representative during construction phases and has coordinated moving people in and out of offices during construction, as well as insuring that Institute lobbies, conference rooms and offices are appropriate furnished.
And it is Betts who usually is the first to hear questions and complaints about the building.
"I listen to a lot of problems and they all have to be looked at," Betts said. "Usually they are little things, like climate control or checking out this noise or that."
As senior research shop foreman, Betts designs and builds research equipment such as clay extractors, peat probes, sample splitters and a variety of equipment for test machinery.
"If someone needs equipment, we will try to find out if it is commercially available. If it is, we will see if the shop has to modify it to meet specific needs. If the price is too high, we will see if we can make it cheaper," Betts said.
In addition to NRRI's equipment needs, NRRI's machine shop also serves the UMD campus and has completed projects for the Environmental Protection Agency's Duluth lab.
But Betts also strives to make the NRRI building not only comfortable, but functional and ecologically aware. He recently instituted an in-house waste reduction program to recycle paper.
"Our garbage is source separated by each staff member and the paper is picked up by Howard Waste Paper," Betts said. Although Howard charges for pick-ups, the service will pay for itself with and estimated 50 to 85 percent reduction in regular trash and a corresponding reduction in collection fees.
Betts also is chairman of NRRI's safety committee and has initiated several training programs on how to improve on-site safety and to train NRRI employees in such life-saving measures as cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.
"Our goal is to have the safest possible working environment for NRRI employees," he said.
As part of the emphasis on safety, NRRI employees are now required to be fully trained in possible job hazards before they start work.
"For example, if an employee will be working in a lab, they are required to know all of the chemicals and hazards," he said.
Betts also is in the process of drafting a recommendation for vision conservation and stress reduction through a program that will provide proper lighting and screen filters for NRRI employees using computer terminals.
"The Geographic Information Systems room is a perfect example of what can be accomplished," Betts said. "Through the use of special lighting and diffusers, 90 percent of the glare that would come from standard lighting has been eliminated."
The safety committee also is examining emergency evacuation procedures from the NRRI building and looking into a building-wide warning system.
In his spare time, Betts enjoys his stained glass hobby, creating gifts of jewelry boxes, windows and kaleidoscopes for family and friends. A resident of Knife River, Betts recently completed construction of his new home.
Organization of Northeastern Minnesota's Business Innovation Center (NEMBIC) is underway within the Center for Economic Development.
The region's newest economic development effort was announced recently by the Greater Minnesota Corporation. NEMBIC is the first of several such centers throughout the state that are being established by GMC to address regional business and technology transfer needs.
"Our mission will be to improve the diversity, strength and stability of the regional economy and to assist in the development of technology based businesses which can compete successfully in regional, national and global economies," said Kjell Knudsen, director of the Center for Economic Development.
NEMBIC will be administered by the Center for Economic Development, which is a joint venture of the Natural Resources Research Institute and the School of Business and Economics. NEMBIC will be based in an as-yet-to-be determined Iron Range location with a field office at a storefront location in Duluth. The Range office will serve clients from Koochiching, Itasca and Upper St. Louis counties.
The offices are expected to open in July. Staffing for the Center will include a director and two business and technology development specialists based on the Range, and an assistant director4 and one business and technology development specialist based in Duluth.
The primary goal of NEMBIC is to develop products and processes and bring technology-based businesses into the region, Knudsen said.
"There are two types of technology transfer," he said. "One is finding technology-based businesses that may be currently located outside of northeastern Minnesota, bringing that technology to the region and building a business around it here," he said.
"The second type of technology transfer is the act of taking technology-based products and processes out of the laboratory and into the marketplace by facilitating research and development here in the region," Knudsen said. NEMBIC will not be working with retail and personal service firms. But, although technology based, its clients will not be limited to only computer or advanced biotechnology companies. Rather, it will assist in the development or expansion of businesses which add value to products or enable other producers to add value to production.
According to Knudsen, NEMBIC will assist people who have ideas for products, processes or services in getting their ideas to market.
"We will be assisting entrepreneurs at the early stages of their technological development by directly helping them, or putting them in contact with those who can," he said.
Knudsen used the example of a large company with a highly developed research and development department that had readily-available resources such s funding and technical expertise.
"For the small, technology-driven entrepreneur, we will provide the research and development assistance equivalent to what an entrepreneur within a large company would have available," he said.
The NEMBIC staff will assist its clients with locating appropriate solutions to their research and development problems, whether those solutions come from the NEMBIC staff or form other organizations.
"Which brings up one of NEMBIC's strong points," Knudsen said. "We are not establishing the organization to duplicate current economic development efforts, but to build on them and strengthen the existing business assistance programs and organizations serving the area."
NEMBIC came about as a cooperative effort of the Center for Economic Development and the Arrowhead Growth Alliance. The Alliance, formed in 1988, is an information organization of 15 economic development agencies that have in common serving the entire northeastern Minnesota region. It was a steering committee from the Alliance that drafted the initial NEMBIC proposal.
"We are cooperating to achieve the future," Knudsen said.
An 11-member advisory board, chaired by Mark Phillips, director of economic development for Minnesota Power, will be appointed to oversee NEMBIC operations and policy, with local advisory groups created for each of the NEMBIC sites to work toward meeting the needs of clients and establishing referral networks. Additional assistance will be provided by a technology transfer work group, which will assist with development of comprehensive information and assistance programs for clients.
The study, "An Overview of Case Studies on Recovery of Aquatic Systems for from Disturbance," was conducted by Center for Water and the Environment Acting Director Jerry Niemi; former director Robert Naiman; CWE staff members Naomi Detenbeck, Debra Taylor, Ann Lima and John Pastor; and David Young of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Duluth laboratory.
The study examined 150 case studies from across the U.S. and Canada of instances where a lake, river or stream had been disturbed by toxic chemical dumping, natural disturbances, logging or agricultural activity and the length of time it took for that location to return to its natural state. Nearly 80 percent of the aquatic systems included in the research were running bodies of water such as rivers and streams.
"The most drastic disturbances, or those that led to a recovery time of more than five years, were due to habitat changes," Niemi said. "Logging and agriculture resulted in increased erosion and a build-up of sediments that changed stream channels."
"Erosion also causes sediments to bury aquatic insects, which are the food for fish and birds," he said. "Erosion is an old idea, but it is still a severe problem."
Most of the chemically-induced disturbances studied were caused by DDT, a pesticide used to control forest insects, and Rotenone, used to eliminate fish populations prior to recolonization. Although recovery from DDT was in excess of three years, recovery times for other chemicals were less than recovery times necessary from habitat changes.
"It was surprising to find recoveries were quite as fast for many chemicals, relative to man-made habitat disturbances and natural disturbances," said Niemi. "We thought disturbances from chemicals would have been much more severe."
The study found that the shortest recovery time was for natural disturbances, such as flooding. "Probably because most critters living in that system were used to those types of things happening," Niemi said.
Niemi stresses that the study has some limitation because the bulk of data involved small stream systems.
"We don't have much recovery information on lakes and large rivers and we don't know how well the results will apply to those," he said.
The study was funded by the EPA.
Scientists in NRRI's Center for Applied Research and Technology Development (CARTD), have worked with Sparfil International Inc., of Ontario to develop the blocks containing taconite tailings.
"They originally were making the blocks using polystyrene beads, silica sand and cement. We came up with the idea of substituting taconite tailings for the silica," said CARTD Director Thys Johnson.
After testing by Sparfil, not only was using taconite tailings found to be possible, but the addition gave the blocks 15 percent more strength. The blocks also are 40 percent lighter than conventional concrete blocks and are expected to provide greater insulation and thus reduce heating costs. The project is funded with a $77,000 grant from the Minnesota Department of Administration.
The Knife River buildings each will be 400 square feet. One will be built using conventional concrete blocks, the other using the taconite/polystyrene blocks. Once completed, each building will be electrically heated at a constant temperature of 65 degree Fahrenheit from October through May to compare energy use.
"Preliminary studies show that we can expect it to cost up to six times as much to heat the conventional block building," Johnson said.
The buildings, which initially will contain only measuring equipment, will only be used for research purposes until the project is finished. After completion of the study, the buildings will be turned over to Knife River, which will maintain the buildings and use them for recreational purposes.
"We were looking for a site on which to construct the buildings and heard that there was a need in Knife River for a community building," Johnson said.
Under an agreement with the University, Knife River has contributed $9,000 toward construction of the buildings, said Larry Furo, chairman of the Knife River Recreation Council. The community plans to use the buildings for recreational purposes.
"The buildings will be built at the ball field and skating area near the existing warming shack," Furo said. "We plan to use them for storage and meetings, and possibly as a new warming building. These buildings are very much needed."
The Department of Administration grant is part of a $16.2 million state fund created from finds paid by oil companies for violations during federal price controls from 1973 to 1981. The federal government distributed the funds to each state to develop programs that help reduce energy costs.
According to Johnson, if the study proves the new blocks are economically viable and an energy cost savings can be realized manufacture of the blocks, licensed by Sparfil, could take place on the Iron Range.
Aspen demand information, obtained from the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, show the annual harvest of aspen will increase from the current level of 1.8 million cords to 2.9 million cords by 1996. This increase in demand is based on current consumption and anticipated increase in consumption from expansions in the pulp and paper industries and the composite industries.
A forecast of future supplies using the above demand and the 1977 forest inventory, the most recent inventory currently available, indicate that demand will exceed supply in the early 21st century.
The study was conducted by NRRI Scientist John Gephart.
Several options are available to increase pulpwood supply for mills and other users. These include: aspen thinning, hybrid aspen/poplar plantations, improved forest access, increased use of other species.
While all of these options can positively affect aspen wood fiber supply, NRRI has chosen to focus on thinning aspen stands. Thinning would have a significant effect by reducing the time required to reach merchantable size and effectively lowering the rotation age.
Recently a bill to expand aspen thinning research in Minnesota was introduced by Rep. Mary Murphy (DFL-Hermantown). NRRI BioProducts Scientists Will Berguson currently is conducting preliminary field trials and will be named principal investigator if this proposal is funded.
"While there are large volumes of merchantable aspen available in the short term, less acreage will be available in the future," Berguson said.
"To allow younger trees to be harvested at an earlier age, stands should be thinned. This will reduce natural mortality and allow the remaining trees to receive more nutrients and sunlight, thereby accelerating growth," he said.
Before thinning can be widely implemented as a management tool, additional research is necessary to determine the best thinning method and find the variation in growth across Minnesota's aspen range.
The response to hand vs. mechanical thinning, or a combination thereof must be found. The economic feasibility of this method also must be verified, as well as a study of the environmental impact of thinning on wildlife and recreational uses.
"Much of the research that is now being accomplished is funded by counties and industry, assisted by the Natural Resources Research Institute. If the state joins this partnership, we will have a greater chance of supplying the demands and maintaining favorable pricing during the years 2010-2020," Rep. Murphy said.
Considering the time required for research and the time required to implement and affect supply, there is an immediate need to expand the research on the thinning of aspen stands.
In his new position, Malterer will direct ongoing peat projects, develop specific applied research areas and assist in the expansion of peat research and development at NRRI.
Malterer comes to the Institute after four years with the University of North Dakota where he was research associate with the Energy and Mineral Research Center and assistant professor of geology. His recently research projects have dealt with energy beneficiation of woody biomass, peat and coal, with emphasis on slurry fuels from peat and woody biomass.
Prior to his work at UND, Malterer was a project manager with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, where he initiated and managed an inventory of peat resources in Minnesota. He also has experience in classification and characterization of peatlands throughout the United States and Canada.
"This will be a wonderful opportunity to shape some of the peat programs at the Institute, as well as the opportunity to work with professionals who have an interest in peat," Malterer said. "I hope to establish a credible peat program and an economic basis for peat utilization in an environmentally sound manner."
A native Minnesotan, Malterer received a Ph.D. in soil science from the University of Minnesota in 1985. His dissertation dealt with the genesis and characterization of peatlands in west-central Minnesota. He also holds a BA in geography and Masters in geography, both from the University of Minnesota.
Malterer is the deputy chairman of Commission I of the International Peat Society and a member of the ASTM Peat Classification sub-committee.
He is well-recognized in the international peat community through his presentations on peat research at numerous symposia.
A previous Aspen Symposium was held in Duluth in 1971. Since that time, new avenues of research not recognized at that time, such as nutrient cycling, hybrid poplar, new forecasting models and new products have created a need for a second symposium, according to Roy Adams, Associate Director of the NRRI Center for Applied Research and Technology Development.
Papers for this year's Symposium are requested that present recent findings in Ecology and Silvics, management and Silviculture and Products and Utilization. Because of a limited number of time slots for presented papers of 20 minutes in length, submissions of poster papers are encouraged.
Abstracts of 100 words or less are due by April 15. Full papers, to be published in a Symposium Proceedings, will be expected by the Symposium date.
The $70,000 molder will be added to the present equipment in the plant, according to James Skurla, business development specialist with the NRRI Business Group. Skurla assisted Partridge River President Andrew Richey in assembling a loan package that was approved by the Northeastern Minnesota Initiative Fund.
Partridge River, which opened nearly two years ago, has found unqualified success in northeastern Minnesota. Originally formed to produce waterbed parts for its Kentucky-based parent company, today Partridge River has expanded its business to include several Twin Cities Futon manufacturers.
Kathryn Fossum has been named laboratory technician to provide analytical support to NRRI's peat group in various projects. A UMD biology graduate, Fossum's expertise centers on vegetative materials analysis.
Editor's note: This is the third of a regular column in NRRI Now provided by the Greater Minnesota Corporation in recognition of NRRI's status as the natural resources research arm of the corporation.
The Greater Minnesota Corporation is moving decisively and thoughtfully to implement its community-based five-point agenda. 1989 will see the establishment of nearly all of the elements of the market-driver program designed to build on the great strengths of our state: its people, its educational system and its vital reservoir of ideas and creativity, to create new products, new businesses and new jobs.
An early report card underscores the Corporation's determination to proceed in a business-like manner to establish the facilities and programs which will use applied research and technology transfer to position Minnesota competitively in the global marketplace. Some of the Corporation's accomplishments are:
Funding the Natural Resources Research Institute at the University of Minnesota Duluth as a designated applied research institute of the Greater Minnesota Corporation which will find new uses for Minnesota's natural resources;
The establishment of the Agricultural Utilization Research Institute in early December, 1988. With four regional research centers in Crookston, Morris, Marshall, and Waseca, the Institute takes advantage of the networks of regional partnerships which have developed in each area making applied agricultural research accessible to every corner of Minnesota to develop new products from, and new uses for, the state's abundant agricultural commodities;
The Technology Research Grant Program to support the early commercialization of new technology. The Program will back applied research projects in businesses and in post-secondary education institutions which have arranged joint research projects with businesses;
The Business Innovation Center program. The Greater Minnesota Corporation has accepted the proposal of the University of Minnesota, Duluth Center for Economic Development and Arrowhead Growth Alliance for a northeastern Minnesota Business Innovation Center (NEMBIC) and has dedicated more than a million dollars, over the next two years, to funding the implementation of the two offices of that facility. Other regional proposals are arriving at the Corporation which, upon their acceptance, will establish a network of Business Innovation Centers and Technology Field Offices throughout the state. The Centers will extend Minnesota's technology and technical assistance capability throughout the state to benefit innovators, entrepreneurs and small and mid-size businesses;
The establishment of a network of Advanced manufacturing Technology Centers around the state. The Centers will offer small and mid-size manufacturers access to advanced manufacturing techniques and information which would otherwise be beyond their reach;
Appointing a Research Advisory Board and an Investment Advisory Board, composed of experienced and respected representatives of the private sector, to assure the highest standards of merit review of proposals and financial accountability.
The actions of the Greater Minnesota Corporation have generated important opportunities to leverage the Corporation's resources to attract substantial outside applied research funds to our state. Among them:
Federal funds for an Agricultural Energy Savings Program to develop agricultural procedures or processes which reduce energy and/or chemical use while maintaining or improving productivity; Federal funding for nine agricultural applied research pilot projects to develop new uses for Minnesota commodities were secured with the support and assistance of Congressmen Vin Weber, Tim Penny and Arlan Stangeland;
Support from the entire Minnesota Congressional Delegation and the Governor's Office of a $5.1 million federal funding request for an agricultural applied research center in Minnesota;
Development of a partnership with the Rural Electric Association to propose a matching grant program which would focus on applied technology to create products, services and jobs in rural Minnesota.
While we are off to a solid start, our journey is still just beginning. GMC will continue to work closely with every sector of our state to create the kinds of meaningful and productive partnerships which will stimulate the long-term economy of our rural areas.
Johnson was presented with the award at the APCOM Symposium in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Johnson came to the Institute in 1985. He formerly was professor and head of the Department of Mining Engineering at Colorado School of Mines.
"I have been active in this organization since its first meeting and it is wonderful to be recognized for these activities," Johnson said.
Research Associate Subhash C. Basak of the center for Water and the Environment recently presented a paper entitled "Optimal Characterization of Structure for Prediction of Properties" at the Third International Mathematical Chemistry Conference held in Galveston, Texas. Gerald J. Niemi, acting CWE director, was co-author of the paper.
Geng Xiao Yuan, a visiting scholar from the Institute of Applied Ecology in Shenyang, China, recently arrived at NRRI to work with CWE Research Associate John Pastor. Xiao Yuan has a B.S. in soil chemistry and a Master is biogeochemistry. He and Pastor are working on a comparative analysis of the forests of northern China and northern Minnesota.
Phil DeVore, assistant scientist with the Center for Water and the Environment recently presented papers on "Management of Bait Leech Production in Wild and Man-made Ponds" and "The Status and Potential of the Crayfish Industry in Minnesota" at the Mahnomen County Aquaculture Workshop. He also presented the paper, "Leech Culture," at the third annual Minnesota Aquaculture conference.
Gerald Niemi, acting director of NRRI's Center for Water and the Environment, recently had his paper, "On the Intrinsic Dimensionality of Chemical Structure Space," published in "Chemosphere," Vol. 17, No. 8. The paper was co-authored with Gilman D. Veith of the Environmental Protection Agency in Duluth; Ronald Regal of the UMD math department; and R.S. Hunter of the Center for Data Systems and Analysis at Montana State University. Niemi also had his paper, "Simplifying Complex QSARs in Toxicity Studies with Multivariate Statistics," published as part of QSAR '88, the third international workshop on quantitative structure-activity relationships in environmental toxicology in Knoxville, Tenn. The paper was co-authored by James McKim of the Environmental Protection Agency's environmental research laboratory in Duluth.
Christian Edwardson, scientist with the BioProducts Division of the Center for Applied Research and Technology Development, recently made a presentation o "Wood Products Opportunities" at Enterprise '89, a conference exploring alternative small businesses utilizing the resources of northern Minnesota. The conference, sponsored in part by NRRI, was held April 8 in Duluth.
Phil Devore, assistant scientist with the Center for Water and the Environment, also presented a paper at Enterprise '89 titled "Bait Leech Harvesting and Culture Potential."
Richard Axler, research associate with the Center for Water and the Environment, recently gave a seminar on "The results of whole-lake experiments" at Castle Lake, Calif., and Lake Mead, Nevada, to the Limnological Research Center of the University of Minnesota. Axler also presented a poster with NRRI Assistant Scientist John Ameel summarizing the activities of NRRI's Analytical Laboratory at the Sigma Xi Science Exhibition at the University of Minnesota Duluth.
The Natural Resources Research Institute was established by the Minnesota Legislature in 1983 to foster economic development of Minnesota's natural resources in an environmentally sound manner to promote private sector employment.
Center for Water and the Environment: Gerald Niemi, director
Center for Economic Development: Kjell Knudsen, director
Center for Applied Research and Technology Development: Thys Johnson, director; Roy Adams, associate director
NRRI Now editor: Patricia Miller
NRRI Now writer: Nora Olson